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Glossary of Terms



  • Actinic Keratoses (AKS)

Dry, scaly, rough, red-brown patches or lesions that form on the surface of the skin after years of ultraviolet light exposure, such as sunlight and sunbeds. Lesion size ranges from that of a pinhead to larger than a five cents piece. Occasionally, a lesion grows to resemble an animal horn and is called a "cutaneous horn." Untreated, AKS may become malignant.


  • Beta-lift peel

Lifts the topmost layer of skin by dissolving the "glue" that holds it to the epidermis, triggering a "burst" of cell division, which increases skin cell production and shedding. Salicylic acid peels are often more intense than the glycolic acid peels. Beta Peels may leave patients with an inflammatory type redness and shedding of skin. 

  • Blepharoplasty

Eye surgery that removes fat, excess skin, and muscle from the upper and lower eyelids. This procedure can correct drooping upper lids and puffy bags below the eyes. Typically performed on patients with a Grade 2 or Grade 3 lower eyelid deformity.

  • Botulinum toxin type A (BoNTA)

Purified substances from bacteria that block muscular nerve signals. Very small amounts are injected into facial muscle, temporarily weakening the muscle and diminishing unwanted lines in the face. BoNTA is also used to treat hyperhidrosis. See also: Botulinum toxin type B. 

  • Botulinum toxin type B (BTX-B)

Purified substances from bacteria that block muscular nerve signals. Very small amounts are injected into facial muscle, temporarily weakening the muscle and diminishing unwanted lines in the face. BTX-B is also used to treat hyperhidrosis. See also: Botulinum toxin type A.


  • Chemical Peel

Resurfacing of the skin with a chemical solution that removes dead skin cells and stimulates the production of new cells for smoother skin. Three main types are used today: deep, medium, and superficial.

  • Chemodenervation

A process involving the injection of substances into the skin to relax spastic muscles, interrupt nerve impulse pathways, and prevent communication between neurons and muscle tissue. 

  • Collagen

Major fibers of protein found in the skin that give the skin its strength and resilience. 

  • Collagen Fillers

Gel-like substances derived from purified human and/or bovine skin that is used by aesthetic medical practitioners, cosmetic dermatologists, or plastic surgeons to correct wrinkles, depressions in the skin, and/or scarring.

  • Columella

A portion of the nose between the nostrils. Fixing a droopy nose, where the columella faces downward, often involves re-orienting the "attitude" and direction of the columella.

  • Crow's Feet

Fine lines around the eyes often caused by sun exposure and the repetitive movement seen with laughing and smiling.


  • Dermabrasion

A surgical procedure in which scarred skin is frozen and then removed using a high-powered rotating brush. 

  • Dermal Fillers

Substances used to "plump" and minimize wrinkles, furrows, and grooves in the face, to correct depressions and scars, and enhance the lips. Filler substances include collagen, fat, hyaluronic acid, plastic microbeads, and liquid silicone. 

  • Dermalogen

A product derived from human donor tissue that is used in lip augmentation to produce a look of fuller lips. 

  • Dynamic Rhytides

Wrinkles and furrows caused by facial expressions (movement) such as frown lines or forehead lines. 


  • Elastosis

Degeneration of the skin’s elastic tissue typically seen with sun damage/exposure and as we age.


  • Fat Fillers

A plastic surgery technique used to correct wrinkles, depressions in the skin, and/or scarring. Fat is harvested from a patient's thigh, abdomen, or jowl/chin and then injected to fill or "plump" facial and other body areas. 

  • Fat Grafting

A procedure in which body fat is used to augment cheeks, lips, or any body area in which augmentation is desired to correct tissue deficiencies or rejuvenate the face for a more "refreshed" look. Also called fat transfer. 

  • Fitzpatrick Classification System

Thomas B. Fitzpatrick, MD, PhD, developed this system to classify skin types. It is based on a person's complexion and responses to sun exposure. He correlated these three classes with the following scoring system and degree of elastosis:

  • Class I: Mild elastosis is defined as fine textural changes with minimal skin lines (score 1–3).
  • Class II: Moderate denotes a yellow discoloration of individual papules (score 4–6).
  • Class III: Severe elastosis describes marked confluent elastosis with thickened, multipapular, and yellowed skin (score 7–9).

The Fitzpatrick classification of skin types and their response to sun exposure are as follows:

  • Skin type I: Very white or freckled, always burns 
  • Skin type II: White, usually burns 
  • Skin type III: White to olive, sometimes burns 
  • Skin type IV: Brown, rarely burns 
  • Skin type V: Dark brown, very rarely burns 
  • Skin type VI: Black, never burns 

Classify your skin here


  • Glabellar Rhytides

Creases in the forehead between the brows, also called frown lines. 

  • Glycolic Acid Peel

Diminishes the cohesion of the skin cells at the innermost levels of the surface layer of the skin. It stimulates this layer of skin in its renewal process, increasing skin thickness and promoting the formation of new epidermis and new dermal collagen. This process will result in skin shrinkage, reduced wrinkling, and softening of "crow's feet." It also helps to lighten pigmentation. 


  • Hyaluronic Acid

Hyaluronic acid is a naturally occurring component or molecule of the skin. It can be injected as a dermal filler to improve the skin's contour and reduce depressions in the skin due to scars, injury, or lines such as crow's feet. 

  • Hyperhidrosis

A disorder of the sweat glands that causes excessive sweating in the hands (palmar), armpits (axillae), face, and feet (plantar). Causes are unknown and the condition can be worsened by stress, anxiety, a warm environment, and physical activity. 

  • Hyper-Pigmentation

A skin condition in which there is excessive pigmentation, often seen as dark spots on the skin such as "café-au-lait" spots. 

  • Hypo-Pigmentation

A skin condition in which there is a lack of pigmentation. 


  • Intense Pulsed Light (IPL)

A technique that delivers high-intensity pulses of light that stimulates new collagen growth, resulting in rejuvenated, smoother, healthier skin. Smoothing of the skin texture, removal of fine veins, diminishing pore size, and reducing fine wrinkles can also be achieved.

  • Iontophoresis

A transdermal delivery system that uses water to conduct a mild electrical current through the skin's surface to block the flow of sweat. Once the sweat is interrupted, sweat production is often "turned off." 


  • Laser Resurfacing

A procedure in which light beams vaporize or burn the top layers of the skin to lessen the appearance of wrinkles, scars, or birthmarks, or to generally resurface facial skin. 

  • Laugh Lines

These are lines or ridges that are formed between the mouth and cheeks due to a loss of volume in fatty tissue in this area, sun damage, and a loss of collagen and elastin fibres as we age. 

  • Lentigines

Flat, brown marks that usually appear on the face, arms, legs, and hands from chronic sun exposure. Also called freckles, age spots, or liver spots. 

  • Lipoatrophy

Facial lipoatrophy is the loss of fat beneath the skin, which can result in sunken cheeks, indentations, and hollow eyes. 


  • Marionette Lines

Lines going down from either side of the mouth. 

  • Melanin

A substance that is produced by the cells (melanocytes) that give the skin its color. Melanocytes increase the production of melanin in response to sun exposure to protect against skin damage. 

  • Melomental Folds

Folds in the corners of the mouth that produce a sad or negative expression and give the appearance of advanced age (also called drool grooves). Melomental folds are mainly caused by a loss or thinning of supportive pockets of fat.

  • Mental Crease

A deep groove between the lower lip and the prominence of the chin. 

  • Microdermabrasion

One form of this technique is delivering aluminum microcrystals under a high pressure onto the skin. A second and more modern approach is using diamond tips of various grades. The main aim is to gently resurface the outer layer of the skin.


  • Nasojugal Groove

A shallow groove in the skin that extends downward and laterally from the tear trough area. 

  • Nasolabial Fold

The crease that runs from the nose to the corner of the mouth. It separates the cheek from the upper lip. With time, this fold can become more prominent due to excessive skin, thinning of skin and underlying fat, or a drooping of cheek fat. 

  • Non–Animal Stabilized Hyaluronic Acid (NASHA)

A clear gel, consisting of microspheres, that is injected into or below the skin to provide the desired augmentation. NASHA fillers work by attracting and holding onto water molecules that tend to leave the skin soft and natural to the touch.


  • Oral Commissures

Lines going down from either side of the mouth. 


  • Peau D'Orange

A contraction of the chin muscle will produce horizontal and multiple dimple or wrinkles on the skin of the chin, also known as orange peel effect or "apple dumpling." 

  • Photoaging

Changes that occur to the skin such as wrinkles and age spots due to both sun and ‘sunbed’ exposure. 

  • Photorejuvenation

Nonablative laser resurfacing and IPL skin rejuvenationthat uses light energy to stimulate the new growth of collagen without removing skin tissue and produces new elastic fiber that rejuvenates photo-damaged skin. 

  • Poly-L-Lactic Acid

A biocompatible, biodegradable, synthetic polymer from the alpha-hydroxy-acid family that is classically used as a filler for facial lipoatrophy in persons with human immunodeficiency virus. It does have a role as a dermal filler for other indications such as cheek augmentation, nasolabial fold softening, etc. 

  • Ptosis

This is defined as a drooping of a body part, such as the eyebrows or eyelids. Can be experienced as a side effect and a complication to Botox injections.


  • Rhinoplasty

A plastic surgery procedure used to enhance or reshape the nose in which both bone and cartilage are reconstructed (commonly known as a "nose job").

  • Rhytides

Wrinkles and furrows caused by facial expressions such as frowns or through sun damage. 

  • Rosacea

A skin disease that causes an array of symptoms, including redness and puffiness on several areas of the face, such as the cheeks and nose. Typically presents as a flushing or visible redness of the areas effected. Rosacea is typically aggravated by exercise, alcohol, and hot baths or showers. In a more progressed form acne like lesions may appear on the skin 


  • Salicylic Acid Peel

A procedure in which the uppermost layer of skin is lifted by dissolving the "glue" that binds it to the underlying epidermis, triggering a "burst" of cell division which accelerates skin cell production and shedding. Salicylic acid peels are often more intense than glycolic acid peels. 

  • Smile Lines

Lines that run between the nose and the outer portion of the lips and are produced by contraction of the zygomaticus muscle (smile muscle). 

  • Soft Tissue Fillers

Substances that are used to "plump" and minimize wrinkles, furrows, and hollows in the face to give the skin a smoother appearance. Fillers such as bovine collagen, fat, and polymer implants are effective for shaping specific facial areas and correcting depressions and scars. 


  • Tear Trough

The groove where tears fall down the cheek at the middle corner of the eye. 

  • Telangiectasias

Small red, purple, or blue blood vessels that swell under the skin and can be easily seen anywhere in the body. They are often called thread or spider veins. 

  • Tissue Augmentation 

Tissue and other materials are grafted, injected, or implanted to treat the face or lips to clear wrinkles and scars from the skin, reshape the cheek bones, fill grooves and depressions, and enhance areas of fat loss. 


  • Upper Gum Show

A short upper lip that exposes the gum line, upper incisors, and canines during a smile. 


  • Vertical platysmal bands

Produced when the cervical skin loses its elasticity and the platysma separates into two diverging vertical bands. These bands are visible during speech and are also known as ‘Turkey Neck’.



33 Piers Road 

Chelsea Village, Wynberg 
Cape Town

South Africa

Bookings: +27 (0)21 797 0960


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